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How Bluetooth Works

How Bluetooth Creates a Connection

Blueooth takes small-area networking to the next level by removing the need for user intervention and keeping transmission power extremely low to save battery power. Bluetooth is essentially a networking standard that works at two levels:

  • It provides agreement at the physical level. Bluetooth is a radio-frequency standard.
  • It provides agreement at the protocol level, where products have to agree on when bits are sent, how many will be sent at a time, and how the parties in a conversation can be sure that the message received is the same as the message sent.

The big draws of Bluetooth are that it is wireless, inexpensive and automatic. There are other ways to get around using wires, including infrared communication. Infrared (IR) refers to light waves of a lower frequency than human eyes can receive and interpret. Infrared is used in most television remote control systems. Infrared communications are fairly reliable and don't cost very much to build into a device, but there are a couple of drawbacks. First, infrared is a "line of sight" technology. For example, you have to point the remote control at the television or DVD player to make things happen. The second drawback is that infrared is almost always a "one to one" technology. You can send data between your desktop computer and your laptop computer, but not your laptop computer and your PDA at the same time.

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These two qualities of infrared are actually advantageous in some regards. Because infrared transmitters and receivers have to be lined up with each other, interference between devices is uncommon. The one-to-one nature of infrared communications is useful in that you can make sure a message goes only to the intended recipient, even in a room full of infrared receivers.

Bluetooth can do more than infrared systems. It can connect with multiple devices and doesn't require line of sight to work. Let's find out how Bluetooth networking works.

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