How Metal Detectors Work

BFO Technology

The most basic way to detect metal uses a technology called beat-frequency oscillator (BFO). In a BFO system, there are two coils of wire. One large coil is in the search head, and a smaller coil is located inside the control box. Each coil is connected to an oscillator that generates thousands of pulses of current per second. The frequency of these pulses is slightly offset between the two coils.

As the pulses travel through each coil, the coil generates radio waves. A tiny receiver within the control box picks up the radio waves and creates an audible series of tones (beats) based on the difference between the frequencies.

If the coil in the search head passes over a metal object, the magnetic field caused by the current flowing through the coil creates a magnetic field around the object. The object's magnetic field interferes with the frequency of the radio waves generated by the search-head coil. As the frequency deviates from the frequency of the coil in the control box, the audible beats change in duration and tone.

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The animation above demonstrates BFO technology.

The simplicity of BFO-based systems allows them to be manufactured and sold for a very low cost.  But these detectors do not provide the level of control and accuracy provided by VLF or PI systems.