How Geofencing Works: Pros, Cons and Privacy Concerns

By: Desiree Bowie  | 
Geofencing comes in handy in the shipping industry, where companies want to know if a package has deviated from its expected route. Marcus Lindstrom / Getty Images

Geofencing is a technology quietly reshaping the marketing and consumer engagement landscape. It establishes virtual boundaries around physical spaces, linking your device to businesses and services effortlessly. When you step across these boundaries, you receive timely messages — discounts, event reminders or exclusive offers — all customized to your location.

While this tech benefits specific sectors, it raises major privacy concerns as it involves tracking your location, which can lead to questions about data privacy and consent.


Let's delve into this technology's mechanics, explore the pivotal role your mobile device plays in this process and take a closer look at the privacy implications.

What Is Geofencing?

Geofencing is a digital technology that establishes virtual boundaries around a specific geographical area. It's like drawing an invisible fence on a map around a place, such as a coffee shop, a park or an entire neighborhood.

This technology monitors devices like smartphones — which rely on GPS, WiFi or cellular data — as they enter or exit these defined areas. It also tracks radio-frequency identification (RFID) tags (compact devices that transmit data wirelessly like contactless car keys) as they move across these virtual boundaries.


Geofencing technology in marketing started to gain significant traction and popularity in the mid-2010s as mobile devices became more widespread and capable. The widespread use of smartphones with built-in GPS capabilities made it easier for businesses and developers to implement geofencing features in mobile apps.

Simultaneously, the rise of location-based services and applications, such as navigation apps, social media check-ins and retail store locators, led to the incorporation of geofencing technology to enhance user experiences.


How Geofencing Works

Let's dive into the technical aspects of this technology and how it functions using a retail scenario:

1. Defining the Geofence

A retailer selects a geographical location around their store to set up the geofence, inputting geographical coordinates into software to outline this invisible boundary.


This could encompass the area directly surrounding the store or extend to a larger neighborhood, setting the stage for where specific digital interactions will be activated.

2. Enabling Location Access

Customers must grant location access on their smartphones for the geofencing to be effective. This permission allows the device to use:

  • GPS for precise location tracking
  • WiFi to determine proximity based on nearby networks
  • cellular data to triangulate the device's position using cell towers

These permissions ensure the system can accurately detect the device's location. (We'll discuss the privacy concerns this has led to in a bit.)

3. Entering or Exiting the Fence

As a customer approaches the store, the geofencing system monitors their smartphone's location in relation to the geofenced geographical location. Crossing into this area triggers the system to recognize the customer's entry based on the continuous location data provided by their smartphone.

4. Triggering an Action

This entry into the geofence prompts a predefined action, such as sending a push notification to the customer's smartphone.

In this retail scenario, the action might be a notification containing a promotional message or a special discount offer designed to engage the customer by providing value when they are near the store.

5. Executing the Response

The customer receives the notification on their smartphone, letting them know a promotion or discount has been delivered directly to their device.

This timely and location-specific engagement can significantly enhance the customer's experience, potentially leading to increased foot traffic to the store and higher sales conversions.


4 Industries That Use Geofencing

Aside from the retail sector, geofencing can enhance security by setting virtual boundaries around sensitive areas. When unauthorized individuals cross these boundaries, the system can trigger alarms and notifications to security personnel.

This application is crucial for high-security areas like military installations or private corporate campuses, where maintaining the integrity of the perimeter is vital. Here are four other scenarios that benefit from geofencing.


1. Workforce Management

For industries with significant on-site work requirements, such as construction or mining, geofencing helps ensure worker safety by monitoring their presence within designated safe areas. Alerts can be set up to notify supervisors if workers enter hazardous zones, enhancing on-site safety protocols.

When it comes to time theft, this technology can also automate attendance and time-tracking processes by marking employees' entry and exit from the workplace. This technology simplifies administrative tasks, reduces the potential for timecard fraud and ensures accurate payroll processing.

2. Smart Home Automation

Home automation systems use geofencing to adjust settings based on the residents' location. For instance, heating or air conditioning can be turned on as a resident approaches home, ensuring the environment is comfortable upon arrival. Similarly, lights can be programmed to turn off automatically when the house is empty, contributing to energy conservation.

Enhanced home security is another application. Security cameras, alarms and lights can be activated or deactivated based on the homeowners' presence, as detected by their smartphones. This ensures that security measures are in place when the house is unoccupied, offering peace of mind to residents.

3. Child Safety and Elderly Care

Parents can use geofencing to create virtual boundaries around safe zones for their children, such as schools or neighborhoods. Receiving instant notifications when a child enters or leaves these areas provides reassurance and enhances child safety.

For elderly care, especially for individuals with cognitive conditions, geofencing offers a safety net by alerting caregivers when they leave their home or care facility, facilitating a quick response to ensure their safety.

4. Transport and Logistics

In the transport sector, geofencing optimizes fleet management by providing real-time alerts when vehicles enter or exit specific zones, such as delivery points or warehouses. This aids in route optimization, efficient scheduling and ensuring timely deliveries.

Companies can receive instant alerts if a shipment deviates from its expected route, enabling quick response to potential theft or loss. This is especially useful for high-value or sensitive shipments that require close monitoring.

Automated toll collection systems use geofencing to detect when vehicles pass through toll areas, enabling seamless toll transactions without the need for physical toll booths. This application reduces traffic congestion and streamlines the toll collection process.


Advantages of Geofencing

Geofencing can enrich the experiences of both consumers and businesses by leveraging the nuanced capabilities of location-based services.

For consumers, it means receiving offers and information that feel tailor-made for them when they're in the right spot, making every interaction feel more relevant and engaging.


This personalized touch, along with the ease it brings to daily tasks — like getting reminders at just the right time or having your home ready for you as you arrive — adds a layer of comfort and convenience to everyday life.

This tech opens up a realm of targeted engagement for businesses, allowing them to send their promotions to potential customers who are just a stone's throw away, subtly nudging foot traffic their way. It streamlines the nitty-gritty of managing resources and people, making operations smoother and safer.

The insights gleaned from how customers move and interact within these virtual boundaries are beneficial, guiding businesses to understand their clientele better and craft offerings that genuinely resonate.

By creating experiences that feel special and contextually relevant, businesses not only stand out in a crowded marketplace but also weave stronger bonds with their customers, all while finding efficiencies that save time and resources.


Disadvantages of Geofencing

This type of location-based marketing raises several privacy concerns, primarily because it relies on tracking the location of individuals through their mobile devices.

The idea of being tracked can make some people uncomfortable, raising questions about how their location data is being used and by whom. It's a bit like someone's always looking over your shoulder and trying to capitalize off this information.


Another concern is the need for more transparency and control over personal data. Smartphone users might not be fully aware of when they are entering a geofenced area or the extent to which their movements are being tracked and analyzed.

This lack of awareness raises questions about consent, as users may unwittingly agree to location tracking without understanding the implications or being able to opt-out easily.

Moreover, the potential for data breaches poses a significant risk. If the data collected by geofencing technologies were to be compromised, it could expose location histories, creating opportunities for stalking, harassment or other malicious activities.

To address these privacy concerns, it's crucial for organizations employing geofencing to implement robust data protection policies, ensure transparency in their use of location data and provide users with clear options to control their privacy settings.

Business Woes

For businesses trying out this marketing strategy, setting up and keeping a geofencing system running can be pretty pricey and tech-heavy, which might be tough for smaller shops. This setup requires geofencing software and location services to work together so they can keep tabs on devices right where they're supposed to.

Achieving the right balance in customer engagement is also crucial. Overloading customers with notifications can feel more invasive than helpful, potentially driving them away rather than attracting them.

The key is to offer value without crossing into intrusion, maintaining a delicate equilibrium between informative and overwhelming.

Geofencing accuracy largely depends on location service reliability, which can be affected by signal issues. Inaccurate location data can lead to misplaced alerts, causing annoyance and diminishing the customer experience rather than enhancing it.

On top of these operational challenges, there's the legal aspect to consider. Navigating the complex regulations surrounding data collection and user consent for accessing location services can be daunting.

Businesses must ensure compliance with privacy laws and regulations, making legal considerations a significant part of managing a geofencing strategy. If the data leaks, they could be sued for large sums.


The Future of Geofencing

The future of geofencing technology in 2024 and beyond is expected to evolve significantly, driven by advancements in IoT (Internet of Things) tech, which refers to physical devices, vehicles, home appliances and other items embedded with electronics, software, sensors and connectivity.

Here are some changes and trends that are likely to shape the future of geofencing.


1. Smart Homes

Geofencing can trigger certain actions based on the residents' location. For instance, as a resident approaches their home, the tech can signal the smart home system to adjust the thermostat, turn on lights or unlock the door.

Future advancements could lead to more nuanced control, such as room-by-room adjustments or integration with wearable devices to understand individual preferences better.

2. Wearable Devices

Many wearable devices already use geofencing to provide health and fitness data, reminders or alerts based on the wearer's location. Future developments might offer more personalized health advice, safety features or integration with medical systems for real-time health monitoring and response.

3. Automotive and Transportation

Vehicles equipped with IoT technologies use geofencing for features like theft prevention, parental control over young drivers or fleet management.

Future advancements could enhance autonomous driving systems, enable smarter traffic management and integrate with city infrastructure for improved safety and efficiency.

4. Industrial and Commercial Applications

IoT and geofencing are used for asset tracking, security and optimizing operations in industrial settings. Future improvements could lead to more sophisticated supply chain management solutions, enhanced safety protocols and energy-saving strategies in manufacturing and logistics.


Geofencing vs. Geotargeting

These location-based technologies are used in digital marketing and various applications but differ in their approach and specific use cases.

We know that geofencing involves setting up a virtual boundary around a physical location and the tracking devices in that area; think of geotargeting as its tech cousin that delivers content or advertisements to users based on their geographic location, which can be determined through IP addresses or device settings.


Unlike geofencing, geotargeting doesn't require users to enter or exit a specific area to trigger an action. Instead, it uses location data to tailor content to users in a particular region, city or neighborhood.

This makes geotargeting suitable for broader marketing campaigns, such as showing region-specific ads on a website, customizing content for users in different areas or targeting social media ads to users in particular locations.

This article was updated in conjunction with AI technology, then fact-checked and edited by a HowStuffWorks editor.